Classify The Fault: Defects Due to Dyeing & Printing

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So far in this defects series, we have discussed, knit and woven fabric defects, embroidery defects and garment defects in depth. The last article in this series will be the defects that occur during the dyeing and printing process of fabrics.

Dyeing and printing processes are either used to improve the aesthetic appeal of the fabric or for functional purposes.

Dyeing process needs very vigilant control on the dyeing conditions, like the temperature, time, color concentration and ratios, chemicals used, and the material to liquor ratio, to ensure even shade in the batch.

This article will talk about various defects due to dyeing and printing procedures.

Dyeing Defects

1. Unlevelled /Cloudy Dyeing:

2. Barriness:

3. Reproducibility / Shade Variation:

4. Dyeing Patches:

5. Softener Marks:

6. Tonal Variation: The tone of the fabric dye varies with or between rolls of the same lot.

7. Crease and Rope Marks: Dark and haphazard lines, broken or continuous, that appear in the fabric.

8. Poor Light Fastness:

9. Poor Wet and Rub Fastness:

10. Fabric Tendering:

11. Shade Bar:

12. Dye stains:

13. White Spots:

14. Colour Crocking: The color of the dyed fabric rubs off or transfers to the other fabric surfaces.


Printing Defects

1. Print distortion due to hanging thread: The pattern of the print breaks where hanging thread appears.

2. Misprint: if the print is not as per the design required, or the outlines and the filled in colors in the designed are not aligned properly or there is an absence of print at a particular spot or spots.

3. Uneven print: Fabric’s print has a tint or bold and dull spaces.

4. Blurred or Dark Patches: Fabric’s print has a tint or bold and dull spaces.

5. Water Mark: Ripple effect in the print.

6. Misfits: Out of Registration print or the incorrect alignment of the print leading to overlapping of colors or patterns in the final print.

7. Stick in: Small unprinted circle in the final design.

8. Scrimps: Small unprinted circle in the final design.

9. Wicking/Flushing: printed area bleeding out on the unprinted area on the fabric causing a shadow effect around the print.

Although the apparel industry has time and again been using analogous textile printing, but the day is not far when the industry will evolve into a more digitized form of printing. This post by Sourcing Journal will explain how digital printing is the new face of the apparel industry.
“The fast fashion supply chain is dramatically reduced with digital textile printing, due to a combination of low set-up and running costs and personalization capabilities. A few years ago, brands would have to wait months from material selection to finished apparel product. Digital textile printing doesn’t require the extensive amount of labor and resources associated with traditional apparel production. Instead, it acts as an all-in-one solution for brands that want to conserve their budgets and design merchandise differently.”


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