After the knit defects post, we will talk about the defects found in woven fabrics. Defects found in fabric ruin the aesthetic appeal and quality of the final garment, making it really important to identify and take corrective measures at the right time.
Defects in woven fabric can be a result of yarn imperfections, incorrect weaving process or errors in the finishing process. They can be categorized into 3 groups: yarn related defects, defects occurring in warp direction and defects in the filling direction.
Yarn Related Defects:
1. Mixed End/ Thick End: It can be identified as the warp end having larger diameter than the other warps.
2. Slub Or Slug: Abnormally thick place occurring in the yarn that affects the fabric’s appearance.
Warp Direction Defects:
1. Reedy Fabric Marks: Appearance of fine cracks across the fabric between warp end groups which resemble denting pattern in the reed.
2. Warp Streaks: Warp streaks can be identified as the warp way stripes of shade variations occurring between groups of threads.
3. Misdraws / Wrong Draw: Design or stripes in the final fabric being damaged due to drawing of incorrect ends.
4. Broken / Missing End: It can be identified as the space created in the fabric when a yarn partially or completely is missing from the fabric
Weft Direction Defects:
1. Starting Marks: Thick or thin places occurring in fabric due to pick density variation when starting the loom, causing starting marks.
2. Filling/Weft Bars:
3. Broken Pick: Broken Pick defect can be identified as the weft inserted to only a partial portion of the pick.
4. Broken Pattern: This defect occurs on drop box looms for fabrics that have patterns. If the sequence of weft yarn colour breaks or pattern width of particular colour is distorted, broken pattern defect appears.
5. Double Pick: This defect happens when more than one pick is inserted in the single shed.
6. Gout: Appearance of foreign matter or contamination like lint, waste, etc woven into the fabric.
7. Sloughing off: When a bunch of or coil of yarn slips from the pirn during weaving then thick yarn bunches or coils appear on the fabric.
8. Snarl: When yarn doubles back on itself especially because of high twist yarn, then snarling appears. It can be found randomly spread across fabric width or only in a region nearby the selvedge.
Now we know some of the common defects that can appear in woven fabric that can hamper the quality of the final garment produced out of it. With the knowledge of what causes these defects and how we can avoid them during the weaving process, we can ensure the fabric produced is as per the quality and appearance intended.