8 Fabric Losses Your Factory Faces Today

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Fabric is the core of apparel manufacturing making up to 70% of the total cost of the garment. Several studies have been carried out with the aim to reduce fabric wastage in the production process. In order to eliminate this fabric waste, it is essential to first identify the different types of wastes, secondly, segregate them into essential and non-essential and then finally, develop ways to minimise or eliminate the wastes.

The types of fabric losses are:

1. End Loss

The End Loss is a function of the factory process. It is an allowance left at the ends of a ply for to facilitate cutting. The standard end loss per ply is 2cm – 4cm. However, it may vary with the quality of cutting processes.
This loss can be minimized by using automatic cutting techniques or reducing number of plies while planning.

2. Fabric Joint Loss

Fabric rolls are stitched together when undergoing manufacturing processes for the sake of uniformity. This results in fabric wastage of the areas having stitch holes or marks. This is Fabric Joint Loss. It is an unavoidable loss for the factory.

3. Edge Loss

The width of the marker is a few centimetres less than the edge-to-edge width of the fabric. This is done to accommodate the selvedge of fabric. Thus, a cuttable width is obtained. The loss of fabric on the sides for selvedge accommodation is Edge Loss. In order to minimize this loss, the cuttable width of the fabric should be as wide as possible to optimise fabric consumption. The markers should be made at the cuttable width to avoid excess wastage.

4. Splicing Overlap Loss

Splicing is a process of cutting fabric across its width and overlapping layers in between the two ends of a lay. Splicing process is also used when one fabric roll ends in the middle of the marker and end bit length is enough to cover at least one complete garment component. Spreading of next roll starts from the splice mark.

The fabric which is used in overlapping is the waste generated. This overlap is the Splicing Loss. The distance between the splicing points influences the amount of waste produced. In order to minimize this wastage, markers should be made in such a way that the overlap of fabric is minimum.

5. Remnant Loss

Remnant fabric is the end bit left after the complete laying of a single fabric roll. This fabric conventionally thrown aside or used for part change. This is Remnant Loss. In order to minimize this loss, a good planning and an accurate roll allocation system must be in place to minimize these end bits. However, as end bits are inevitable, the end bits generated should be measured and labelled with correct length and roll number and used effectively in the factory.

6. Ticket Length Loss

Ticket Length Loss or Vendor’s Loss is the difference in actual length of fabric roll as opposed to the length mentioned in the fabric roll ticket. This is the reflection of the quality of your vendor. A good vendor will always give fabric a few meters higher than the required quantity, however a poor vendor might do otherwise. Vendor tracking metrics are valuable in controlling this wastage.

7. Stickering Loss

Several times the patterns are cut a little extra for pattern marking and stickering. This area gets damaged due to glue or ink and has to be cut off and is wasted. This is the Stickering Loss. A superior marking technique can be used to combat this wastage.

8. Cutting Edge Loss

Cutting Edge Loss is a minor loss which results from uneven and faulty cutting during fabric laying and cutting. This is caused due to faulty cutting methods or faulty cutting machinery. Refined cutting processes can overcome this loss effectively.

Click here to know how to minimize these fabric losses.

To make your factory free from unnecesary fabric losses and increase your productivity visit our website or you can also request a demo of our product here, it’s free.

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  1. MANOJ KUMAR says

    Thnx & appreciate your important message for Garment industry owners/ workmen.This is really good to know the things about garment industry details & implement those things in your own apparel unit. Mausmi madam will provide a good matter/ ideas in advance through stitch diary article. A person who are directly or indirectly connected with garment business they are benefited a lot.I wish her a lot to do so in this new year 2018. This is important for all if you do the business then you must aware about the product & its procedure.
    Appreciate your knowledge & presentation skill. all the best & Good luck to you for future endeavour.

    Rgds/ Manoj Kumar

  2. Manzur Kalam says

    Agree with Tom Hawthorn. Its a start, but a good one.

    1. Mausmi Ambastha says

      Yes Manzur, this is just the start and journey towards wastage-free factory is long. Thank you for your appreciation.

  3. Ashim says

    The factors pointed for fabric losses are very practical.
    We have a small garment factory producing around 3000 pieces of knits (inner and outer) per 8 hrs. Our niche is consistency in our quality. We have an manual fabric spreader. Would it be economical for using software for our production process? We are optimistic about the advantages but unaware of the economics in the capital investment.

    1. Mausmi Ambastha says

      Hi Ashim,
      Use of good software is always beneficial to any organisation. Your numbers show that you are producing approximately 75000 pieces per month. This should give you a ROI in 3-4 months as per my experience. It is very important that you choose a technology that helps you in reducing your process loss and comes with proper after sales support.
      Along with my co-founders, I have made a software for the garment industry which has proven to be beneficial for all SMEs in all segments of denims, woven, knits, etc. We have a number of reputed clients in India and abroad who are knitted garment producers and are reaping huge benefits.

  4. BABUL SINGH says




  5. Tom HAWTHORN says

    Very general. I was the Utilisation Engineer in Wrangler VF in a past life, where we were running about 100, 000 denim metres a week. Your headers in the above are just the start.

    1. Mausmi Ambastha says

      Hi Tom,

      Yes indeed the above are just the start. I will try to cover more things in subsequent articles. I also welcome you to write a guest post. It would be an honour to post some bits of your knowledge for public consumption.

      1. Anonymous says

        The roll size is very important to be as big as can be handled. Splice marks roll to roll or cut outs should overlap. Make sure the pattern sizes are varied and different inseams. Try to allow an incentive system for computer marker makers to get money for creating the best % efficiency. This motivation is important and the cost is negligible.
        Keep trim pieces out of the marker to cut from remnants. Measure every roll incoming.

        Create tolerances for spreading. Max out of line on front edge must be only 1/4 inch. Marker width depends if the fabric has a selvedge. Outside to outside fabric minus 1/2 inch should be enough for marker width. Monitor this. Get tight fabric shades from supplier in the mills dyeing sequence so endless spreading is possible. Tom Hawthorn

        1. Mausmi Ambastha says

          All the points you mentioned are spot on perfect. We follow all the above points as the focus of our material management solution. This article only talks about the incorrect focus on just cutplan and ignoring all the many points you mentioned above. The various upcoming articles would be discussing the other opportunities of material management individually in detail.

  6. janaka says

    Thanks for the very essential document this is very useful

  7. Keerthi Abe says

    Very true Mausmi. Worthy of having eight KPIs; and a full timer working upon them too.

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